‘Transition’ is the process that soldiers and their families go through when preparing to leave the Army. Transition is a unique experience for everyone – what to do and when to do it will vary depending on your family’s needs.

Between October 2016 and October 2018, AFF worked with the other Families Federations to research families’ experiences of leaving the Army. The project helped us understand the challenges that families face and the help they need.

We are using this evidence to help change policy and service provision with the aim of improving families’ experiences of transition. The learning from the research has been embedded across the AFF team so that our regional leads and specialists can support you if you need help with your own transition.

What should I know about transition?

  • The more pro-active your family is about seeking information and support about re-joining civvy street, and the earlier you start planning, the more successful your move is likely to be. There’s no such thing as too soon when it comes to thinking about, and planning for, life after the Army.
  • Transition is about more than your Service leaver’s employment (which is often what people focus on when thinking about leaving the Forces); it includes: housing, wellbeing, employment, health, education & children, finances and lots more!
  • The impact that leaving the Forces can have on the wellbeing of your soldier and your family shouldn’t be understated. The whole family can be affected.

Download LIFTING THE LID ON TRANSITION- The families’ experience and the support they need (full report) and a summary infographic.

If you have a question or concern that relates to you returning to civvy street after life in the Army, contact one of our specialists or your local regional lead.

Please check our COVID-19 section for up-to-date information, as the coronavirus outbreak may affect the advice given on this page.


01   Defence Transition Service

Defence Transition Service (DTS) has been launched to provide comprehensive support to Service leavers and their families with the transition into civilian life.

Responsibility will be placed on a Service person’s unit to assess each Service leaver’s readiness for transitioning into civilian life. Those assessed as someone who may find the transition more difficult will then be referred to Defence Transition Service.

Personnel and their families who have been referred to DTS will receive support and guidance from regional MOD teams on topics such as managing finances, including budgeting for council tax, housing and travel costs, and accessing healthcare.

Support from the DTS is provided for a member of the Armed Forces while they approach their date of discharge and will not stop when they leave. The support can continue for as long as it is needed.

Referrals for support can be made using DTS Form 1 (for unit welfare staff, Service admin staff, specialist welfare providers from all branches of the Front Line Commands and those connected with the Military Corrective Training Centre) and DTS From 2 (for self-referrals, and charities and local authorities).

The forms can be found at (Annexe G).

Veterans’ ID card

All Service leavers who have left since December 2018 receive a veterans’ ID card to mark their time in the Armed Forces. This card allows veterans to verify their Service to the NHS, local authorities and charities and access support and Services.

Veterans’ railcard

A railcard is available for veterans and members of their family travelling with them. For more information, see

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02   Housing

Service leavers may (where availability allows) request to remain in their SFA for up to 12 months after their last day of Service, DIO has produced an infographic to show the options.

Deciding where to live and finding a home is a key concern for many people when their soldier leaves the Army, especially if you’re currently living in Service Family Accommodation (SFA).

Advance planning can reduce stress levels, particularly when it comes to having enough money for a purchase or rental income and understanding the true cost of living outside of SFA.

It’s also important to think about the location of your new home in relation to your and your soldier’s jobs, local schools and access to the local community and your support network.

To read about our housing research findings, turn to section 4.2 of LIFTING THE LID ON TRANSITION- The families’ experience and the support they need (full report).

The Joint Services Housing Advice Office (JSHAO)

A good place to start your housing research is by attending a civilian housing brief presented by JSHAO.

The briefings provide advice and guidance to you and your serving soldier, about housing options when making the transition to civilian life. You can attend a civilian housing brief at any point during your soldier’s career – you don’t have to wait until you know your soldier is leaving and is in resettlement!

For more information, see

The JSHAO civilian housing brief is now available online via the Defence Gateway, so you can log on at home and do the e-brief together with your soldier from a home computer.

Eligibility for final removals

The Army doesn’t pay for your first or final move, so make sure you’re aware of the costs associated with moving and prepare accordingly.

There is a little-known regulation covering ‘Final Tour of Duty’ requests. Provision does exist for paying both Disturbance Expense (DE) and Removal of Personal Effects (RPE) at public expense for a final move, providing that a request to reside in a particular area has previously been made to the appropriate Career Manager.

For more information, see our Moving-in/Moving-out page.

Charges on move-out

All charges for damages and deficiencies on SFA and SSFA in the UK are now recovered from the soldier’s pay.

For more information on how to prepare for move-out, see our Moving-in/Moving-out page.

Social housing

Social housing is very scarce, and most councils have long waiting lists – the Armed Forces Covenant means that you will not be disadvantaged if you don’t have a local connection, however, it will NOT mean that you get to the top of the list.

Remember that if your soldier receives a pension lump sum as they leave the Army, this may mean you exceed the asset threshold to apply for social housing.

If you require local authority housing when you move out of your SFA, DIO’s Loss of Entitlement team (LOET) will issue you a ‘Certificate of Cessation of Right to Occupy Service Quarters’; this is a document issued to show when your entitlement to occupy Service accommodation will end. The Certificate can be used to demonstrate to a local housing authority that you will become homeless on a given date.

For more information on social housing, see our Civilian housing page.

Forces Help to Buy (FHTB) Scheme

The scheme aims to address low levels of home ownership in the Armed Forces, overcoming the disadvantages that mobility brings in line with the principles of the Armed Forces Covenant. It supports greater lifestyle choice and retention of personnel. If you have at least six months left to serve at the time of application, you may be eligible. See our Civilian housing page for further details.

Notice to Vacate guidance for SFA customers from DIO

When your entitlement to SFA is due to finish, whether due to end of Service, divorce or discharge, you will be issued with a Notice to Vacate (NTV) by DIO.

An NTV is legal notice of the termination of your licence to occupy SFA and is generally 93 days with the last day timed to coincide with your soldier’s last day of Service.

During this period, you will still pay Service rates for the property and this money will still be collected direct from your soldier via JPA.

For more information on why it is issued and what you should do when you have received it, see

Irregular Occupancy (IO) – What happens when a ‘Notice to Vacate’ has expired?

Although it happens more than you might think, Irregular Occupancy isn’t a subject commonly discussed.

Forget the term illegal occupancy (as it is often called), there is nothing illegal about finding yourself in an SFA when your entitlement has ceased.

SFA occupants can become an Irregular Occupant for several reasons, including because of standard discharge or retirement from the Services.

In such cases, you are required to give the DIO Loss of Entitlement team (LOET) at least four months’ notice of your soldier’s last day of Service. 93 days’ NTV will then be given to coincide with the discharge date. If less notice is given, then the NTV period will be reduced accordingly. The DIO LOET can be contacted on 01904 418 000 (Military 94510 8000) or email

Please note that the DIO OPS Accommodation finance team, based in York, deals with collecting rents from Irregular Occupants when they can no longer be deducted from salary. All letters in relation to IO, with the exception of financial statements, will be issued by the LOET. So, it is important that you notify them of any changes to your personal circumstances.

Once a ‘Notice’ has been issued, you will be notified of the new charges at least four weeks prior to the Notice expiring. This will enable you, if entitled, to apply early for housing benefits, thereby avoiding any delay in payment.

The letters sent out by the LOET use legal housing jargon and are set out in a manner required and understood by the courts and local councils. Terms such as: ‘Damages for Trespass’ and ‘Violent Profits’ (in Scotland) can seem intimidating, but they are simply legal phrases used to describe the total charges for the use and occupation of an SFA.

If you wish to apply to stay in your SFA for longer, see our Applying for SFA/SSFA page for more information.

Leaving your SFA

When the time comes for you to move out of your SFA, it must be cleaned to move-out standard in the normal way. You should arrange a pre-move-out inspection through the Pinnacle Home Services Team so that your Housing Officer can give you all the guidance you require for move-out.

You may also be entitled to financial help with your removals, so contact your Unit Welfare Officer who will be able to advise you.

Where can I get information, advice and support?

If you do find yourself in this worrying situation, speak to your Unit Welfare Officer, LOET, Army Welfare Service worker, SSAFA FH or AFF about benefits and future housing provision.

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03   Employment

Spousal/partner employment is recognised as a key contributor to a less challenging transition.

Being employed while your soldier is preparing to leave the Army can help provide some stability for the family and a helpful income as you adjust to civvy street expenses.

To read about our employment research findings, turn to section 4.4 of Lifting the Lid.

Your CV

In today’s job market, having a good CV is essential, no matter what kind of employment you are seeking.

As an Army spouse who probably has a chequered career history or posting-induced career breaks, it’s even more important that your CV makes you stand out from the crowd.

We have various providers who can help you develop your CV on our Forces Families Jobs Career Advice page.

Resettlement for soldiers

Resettlement is the package of support that a solider can access as they leave the Army. It is usually available for a limited period for up to two years before/after your soldier’s end of Service.

People often confuse ‘resettlement’ and ‘transition’: resettlement is just one part of transition, which is a much longer-term, holistic process.

If your soldier is facing redundancy or looking at the normal resettlement route, the help that is provided by the Career Transition Partnership (CTP) and the Regular Forces Employment Association (RFEA) really does work.

Different packages are available depending on how many years your soldier has served and for those who are medically discharged.

There are lots of resources on the CTP website that are useful for non-serving family members too, such as information sheets and CV guides.

In some cases, such as some examples of medical discharge, a Service leaver can transfer their CTP entitlement to an eligible spouse/partner. For more information, your soldier should speak to their chain of command, IERO or CTP advisor. (keep all existing links in resettlement section).

Where can I get information, advice and support?

The employment pages of the AFF website.

Spouses, partners and adult family members are eligible to use Forces Families Jobs during the first 12 months of the serving person leaving the Armed Forces.

The Government and some Service and ex-Service organisations offer financial assistance to serving and ex-Service personnel, and members of their families, to support a course of study or training. This may include assistance with the added costs and expenses associated with studying. See our Employment & Training pages for some good places to start.

Royal British Legion Industries (RBLI) Lifeworks for Families runs free courses around the UK and Germany to help Army families get back into work. They will help you discover the career that suits you, guide you through a change in location or situation and help you search and apply for jobs.

Have you thought about setting up your own business? Many Army spouses find this an attractive option which fits well with Army family life. Find lots of information to help you get started on our Be your own boss page.

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04   Education

A move to a new location as your soldier leaves the Army can often mean finding school places for children.

To read about our education research findings, turn to section 4.7 of Lifting the Lid.

Changing schools

If you’re going to be settling in a new area as part of your transition and will be looking for new school places for your children, it’s important to contact the local schools and the admissions team of the Local Authority (LA) to find out where there are school places in your new area as soon as possible.

Some schools manage their admissions themselves and some are managed by the LA; the Schools Admissions Code 2021 refers to children of Armed Forces personnel.

This is only a consideration for admissions authorities and does not guarantee you the school place of your choice.

Having difficulty acquiring a school place for your child? Let us know, email so that we can use evidence like yours to continue to campaign.

Claiming Continuity of Education Allowance (CEA)

CEA is paid up until the end of the term that your soldier’s end of Service date falls. If this date falls in a holiday period, then CEA is paid up until the end of the term before.

If your soldier is leaving on redundancy or for other reasons, the rules may be different – contact our Money & Allowances Specialist at for further details.

Double check the small print of the contract you have with your child’s boarding school as some layout a minimum number of terms; if you have not completed those, you may be liable for the full fees (without CEA) for the remaining time.

If you are keen for your children to remain at the same school but concerned about how to finance it, some parents have been successful in negotiating a lump sum payment (from their gratuity) to keep their child in school for the remaining time.

There are a couple of bursaries that AFF is aware of for families needing help with school fees. Contact our Money & Allowances Specialist at to find out more.

Changing from a boarding to a day place

Please be aware that some schools have specific quotas for day and boarding pupils – particularly state boarding schools. Don’t assume that you can transfer from one to the other – check this with the school.

Service Pupil Premium (SPP)

£310 of SPP money is paid directly to state schools, free schools and academies across England for supporting Service children in Years R-11. Schools can claim SPP for up to six years after the serving parent has left the Army as long as they have previously been registered as a Service child, this is known as the Ever-6 Service Pupil Premium. See Service pupil premium (SPP): information for schools

It is not possible to claim retrospectively or to register your child for this via the schools’ census once your soldier has left the Army, so make sure your child’s current school knows your child is a Service child and registers them accordingly.

Equally, let your school know when your soldier leaves the Army, so their status can be adjusted on the records. For more details, see our Service Pupil Premium page.

Differences between education systems

England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and boarding schools all deliver education differently. We have produced a table showing comparative school years for children within the different state education systems of the Devolved Administrations.


Once you know where you are moving to find out what childcare options are available to you and establish if there are spaces, or if the setting holds a waiting list as well as checking what the application process is. Remember that the age children start at school varies in different parts of the UK and the offer for funded hours in the pre-school years is different between each of the devolved nations. See Childcare Choices on the Government website.

Where can I get information, advice and support?

The education pages of the AFF website.

UK Education Advisory Team (UK EAT) – formerly CEAS also provides expert and impartial advice about the education of Service children.

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05   Money

Money can be a significant concern when leaving the Army. The cost of living in civvy street can be very different to living in SFA and it can take time to get used to a new way of budgeting.

To read about our money research findings, turn to section 4.5 of Lifting the Lid.

Termination pay

Final pay-out for pension benefits may take up to 35 working days after your soldier’s discharge/retirement date. It’s important that you plan for this accordingly and don’t rely on this money for time-specific expenditure, such as a deposit on a rental property, as any delays could mean you miss out.

Your soldier’s pension

Veterans UK is part of the MOD. It provides essential support services to the Armed Forces and veterans including:

  • allowances
  • pensions
  • compensation

For more information, see You might also find the Forces Pension Society a useful resource.

Final removal costs

The Army does not pay for your first or final move, so make sure you are aware of the costs associated with moving and prepare accordingly.

Don’t forget to claim your National Insurance contributions

From 6 April 2010, all Service spouses and civil partners can claim National Insurance credits, to maintain their National Insurance record for time spent accompanying their spouse or civil partner on an overseas assignment.

These credits protect your entitlement to the basic state pension and contribution-based Social Security benefits such as new style Jobseeker’s allowance or new style Employment and Support Allowance.

For more information on National insurance credits for Service spouses, see our Benefits, National Insurance and Tax page.

Job Seeker’s Allowance (JSA)

This is the main benefit you can get if you’re unemployed and looking for work. This benefit is taxable.

AFF is extremely pleased that there have been condition changes for families returning from overseas with regards to claiming JSA.

These changes have been implemented to overcome previous disadvantage faced by Army spouses/civil partners returning from overseas postings. See our Benefits, National Insurance and Tax for more details.

Where can I get information, advice and support?

The money pages of the AFF website

The MOD offers a Financial Aspects of Resettlement (FAR) briefing for soldiers and their spouses or partners, which is available to attend as soon as your soldier is entitled to resettlement. This is a great way to find out more about some specific financial elements of transition, such as the Armed Forces pension, and ask questions about others.

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06   Health & additional needs and wellbeing

Healthcare is an important consideration when your soldier is leaving the Army, particularly if they or another member of the family is undergoing medical treatment at the time. There are a number of practical steps you can take to ensure family members can access medical and dental treatment once your soldier has left the Army.

It is also worth bearing in mind the emotional impact that transition can have on the whole family’s wellbeing. The Army has produced Transition Information Sheet 2 – The Emotional Pathway to help raise awareness of this.

To read about our health research findings, turn to section 4.6 of Lifting the Lid; for the Wellbeing pages, see section 4.3.

Registering with a GP and finding an NHS dentist

Registering with a GP is often nothing new for most Army families; however, if you have previously been registered with Defence Primary Healthcare (DPHC) or military medical centres, you may be a little anxious about registering with an NHS practice. For information and advice on registering with a GP, see our Health page.

AFF is aware of the difficulties families can face in finding an NHS dentist. For more information and advice, please see our health pages.

The Army has produced some transition guidance for soldiers explaining how to access the NHS and veteran related services [Transition Information Sheet 3].

Once your spouse or partner has left the Army, they are considered a veteran and it is important that they inform their GP of this, particularly if they have an ongoing medical issue or are taking medication.

If you or a member of your family is currently undergoing medical treatment, or are taking specific medication, it is important to ask your GP for a copy of any relevant medical notes or a record of the medication that you are taking. This should reduce any delay in treatment when you register with your next GP, particularly if your medical notes haven’t arrived when you have your initial appointment.

If you are receiving specialist treatment in hospital, it is recommended that you ask your consultant for a current referral letter. Your new GP can then re-refer you for consultant and secondary care.

If you are currently on an NHS waiting list and move before you reach the top of it, you should be able to transfer any waiting time accrued when you move; this is a commitment of the Armed Forces Covenant.

If you do experience problems with transferring your NHS waiting list time, contact AFF Health and Additional Needs Specialist Karen Ross at

Mental health

Army families have always been expected to access their mental health provision through the NHS or through charitable provision, so this won’t change when your spouse/partner leaves the Army. Mental health provision can also be accessed through various charitable organisations; for more information, see our Mental health page.

Service personnel are provided with mental healthcare provision through the Defence Medical Services (DMS) if required. However. once your soldier has left the Army, their NHS GP becomes responsible for healthcare provision for both physical and mental health issues.

Op COURAGE – The Veterans’ Mental Health and Wellbeing Service

Op COURAGE was launched on 4 March 2021 and is the new name for the Veterans’ Mental Health Transition, Intervention and Liaison Service (TILS), Veterans’ Mental Health Complex Treatment Service (CTS) and Veterans’ Mental Health High Intensity Service (HIS). The new name has been developed following feedback from the Armed Forces community to make it easier for those leaving the military and veterans to get help.

More information on Op COURAGE, including contact details, can be found at

Other organisations that can help both veterans and their families on mental health include:

Transferring treatment or NHS waiting list time

For more information, see our Health page.

Additional needs adaptations – moving from SFA to a civilian house

If you have a family member with additional needs and/or disability and you require adaptations to your next property, contact your Local Authority (LA) to request an Occupational Therapy (OT) assessment.

In some areas, LAs may have long waiting lists and they usually have eligibility criteria to see whether someone can receive OT services; this is based on the Fair Access to Care Services (FACS) guidance.

For more information on the eligibility criteria, see

If you cannot wait for an LA OT assessment, you can opt to get a private OT assessment; ensure they are fully qualified and a member of a recognised body, such as the British Association of Occupational Therapists (BAOT).

OTs can also provide you with equipment for your home; to find out how you do this, see

If you require major adaptations or more expensive equipment, this is the responsibility of the housing department. You may be required to pay something towards the cost of these items, or you may be able to apply for a Disabled Facilities Grant to help with the cost.

The Disabled Facilities Grant is means tested for adults and is only available in England and Wales. For Scotland visit
and for NI visit

Children with a disability who are under 18 years can get a grant without their parents’ income being taken into account. Contact your local council for more information.

Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND)

If your child has SEND and you need support getting them into the correct school for their needs, contact the Local Authority (LA) and speak to the SEND team. The GOV.UK website has some useful information on SEND

The Children and Families Act 2014 gave LAs a statutory duty to produce a ‘Local Offer’ for children and young people with special educational needs and/or a disability (SEND) from 0 to 25 years.

You should be able to find the Local Offer on your local authority website or on the Local Offer website. The Department for Education (DfE) has published a useful SEND guide for parents and carers.

Take a look at the Health & Additional Needs pages of the AFF website.

Moving between countries within the UK

As Devolved Administrations, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland set their own policies and provide their own services in some areas.

For information about how living in these areas might compare to living in England, see our Overseas pages.

Leaving the Army from an overseas posting

If your soldier is looking to access their resettlement entitlement from their last tour of duty that is overseas, forward planning is even more crucial. As a family, you should consider the implications of serving overseas and trying to access resettlement at the same time.

UK-based Service leavers will access much of their resettlement and Career Transition Partnership support via their local Regional Resettlement Centre (RRC). There is also an RRC in Germany and one in Catterick that serves postings in Canada, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Naples, embassies and all other locations. See for more information.

Access to services are also more limited when serving in isolated appointments such as Defence Attaché or Loan Service. In these circumstances, your soldier is advised to start their resettlement preparation prior to deployment overseas. As a minimum they should look to attend a Career Transition Workshop (CTW).

For information and guidance about using Learning Credits and accessing resettlement whilst serving in remote overseas locations, you can contact the dedicated Individual Education & Resettlement Officer (IERO) based at 30 AEC Woolwich, Mr Peter Barnes, on 0208 781 374, or the clerk, Mr Brian Sayer on 0208 781 3291,

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07   FAQs

What is meant by ‘transition’?
In the context of the Army, ‘transition’ is the process soldiers and their families go through when the soldier is preparing to leave the Army.

Why is it important to think about transition now?
Amidst all the uncertainty of Service life, transition is the only certainty – one day your soldier WILL leave the Army. Our research shows that the earlier a family plans for their future, the less stressful transition is likely to be. It’s never too early!

While we know that our soldier will leave the Army one day, they might end up leaving sooner than we think, perhaps due to medical discharge. If you have started to think about life after the Army and make provision for it, unexpected doesn’t have to mean unplanned!

How is ‘transition’ different to ‘resettlement’?
Soldiers are entitled to various forms of support during their ‘resettlement’, which is a finite period leading up to and soon after their final date of Service. Your soldier can speak to their chain of command or Individual Education & Resettlement Officer (IERO) at any time to find out more about resettlement entitlement.

The only mandatory element of resettlement for a soldier is the Resettlement Advice Briefing (RAB), which is usually delivered by an IERO. The RAB is a comprehensive guide to what a soldier needs to consider once they have decided to leave the Army and without attending a RAB, a soldier can not access the Career Transition Partnership so it’s a vital first step in getting the support they’re entitled too.

Resettlement is just one part of transition. Transition is about a lot more than just your soldier’s first job after the Army.

What do I need to consider for my family’s transition?
There’s a lot to consider when planning for life after the Army and each family’s priorities will be different. Our research shows that involving family members in transition can only be a good thing. Most families will need to think about:

  • Where will we live?
  • Where will our children go to school?
  • Where will we work?
  • How do I register with a new doctor or dentist?
  • How will I make friends and build a support network outside of the Army community?

What support will my soldier get when they leave?
Soldiers are entitled to a raft of information, guidance and support through the Army, including a Resettlement Advice Brief and access to the Career Transition Partnership (CTP)

Exactly what they are entitled to will vary depending on things like how long they have served. A soldier’s chain of command and Individual Education and Resettlement officers (IEROs) will be able to signpost them to the right information and guide them through the process.

The AFF website provides a wealth of information on specific issues, such as housing, education and childcare, employment and training, health and Foreign & Commonwealth.

What support will our family get when my soldier leaves the Army?
There is very little guidance currently aimed specifically at families in transition. Many military charities extend their services to family members, so it is worth asking about your own situation if you are contacting a charity for help. Family members are encouraged to attend the JSHAO Civilian Housing Brief and the Financial Aspects of Resettlement Brief that soldiers are made aware of. More information about these can be found on the and CTP websites.

SSAFA runs a Transition Mentoring scheme that is designed to support Service leavers and their families as they leave the Army. Family members can access this service in their own right or alongside their Service leaver. For more information about the scheme, visit Please note that the scheme is open to people outside of Catterick, to those who are not wounded, injured or sick, and family members too.

Where else can I find information, advice or support?
The AFF website contains lots of useful information and the pages above suggest links to other subject-specific sources of information, advice or support.

More general help with transition can also be found at:

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08   Welfare support guidance

The Army has issued some guidance on welfare support for those families transitioning from the Army.

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